Last updated on May 13th, 2023.
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
The Solway Firth is the third-largest estuary in the UK and is a special conservation area consisting of coastal dunes, grassland and salt marshes.
Discover the Solway firth in this guide which includes an overview and useful visiting advice.
1: The Solway Firth is an amazing place for birdwatchers and photographers. When the sun is low the view across the estuary is stunning.
2: The Solway Firth has a range of superb walks, especially in the nature reserves. Caerlaverock nature reserve is highly recommended due to the amount of wildlife within it.
3: While the Scottish side is the main focus of this article, the English side has its fair share of attractions too. Two nature reserves in particular – Solway Coast and Glasson Moss – are worth a walk around at any time of the year.
1: If you’d like to discover the history of the area, visit Caerlaverock Castle which is an unusual triangular-shaped fortress close to Caerlaverock nature reserve, or visit New Abbey Corn Mill which is one of the few water-powered grain mills that’s still operational in Scotland.
2: Take binoculars (recommended pairs on Amazon). The Solway Firth is full of wildlife and it’s a haven for seabirds.
3: Drive the A710 and A711 as they hug the coastline along several sections where you can take quiet roads into less-visited areas of the Solway Firth.
The Solway Firth is rightly regarded as one of the most beautiful areas of Scotland, yet it’s often overlooked by visitors to the country.
Stretching out across both England and Scotland, the Solway Firth borders the stunning coastlines of Cumbria and Dumfries & Galloway and extends into the Irish Sea to almost touch the Isle of Man.
Most hikers on the English side that are walking the Hadrian’s Wall path tend to ignore the Solway Firth as it’s flat and virtually featureless, while swimmers are urged to stay out of the water due to the fierce tides that tear up and down the estuary.
In a way that’s a good thing because it means those of us in the know get to enjoy the picturesque landscape in peace and quiet, especially if you’re a wildlife watcher looking to explore the sand dunes, salt marshes, peat bogs and raised mires that are teeming with insects and birdlife.
Moving slightly inland, visitors can enjoy a remarkably diverse landscape that encompasses grassland, woodland and rolling fields, and it’s here where two of the most important wildlife areas in Britain can be found; Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve and the RSPB Mersehead reserve.
These reserves are absolutely stunning and they’re a great place to take a sunny afternoon stroll with the kids.
Some of the hidden-away beaches easily rival those on the west coast islands in my opinion and there’s a huge amount of wildlife to see all along the coastline.
I’ll give you a top tip – one of the best places for spotting harbour porpoises, basking sharks and bottlenose dolphins is the old Victorian resort town of Silloth on the southern side of the estuary.
It’s a bit of a chore to get to as you have to drive inland some distance to cross the River Esk bridge on the M6, but the drive back along the coast is more than worth the effort and you’ll get to explore the Solway Coast Nature Reserve, the South Solway Mosses Nature Reserve and the Drumburgh Moss Nature Reserve along the way.
I’m probably over-stressing this point, but it really is a beautiful part of the country.
But it’s not just picture-postcard coastal scenes that you’ll find in this part of Scotland because there are loads of pretty villages to explore as well.
These include Kippford, Kirkcudbright, Gatehouse of Fleet, Wigtown and Whithorn, while the towns of Dumfries, Annan, and Gretna are within easy driving distance if you need to stock up on supplies.
There are over 110 square miles of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the Solway Firth which has made it one of the best locations in Scotland for getting your hiking boots on and heading out on a trek, and walkers are well rewarded with the many routes available.
Perhaps the most popular trail is the 55-mile long Annandale Way which runs between the towns of Annan and Moffat and offers spectacular views of the broadleaf and coniferous woodlands at Hoddam Estate as well as the largest body of freshwater in Dumfriesshire, Castle Loch.
This is an area of Scotland that’s rightly proud of its countryside and across endless cattle farms, sand dunes, salt marshes, peat bogs and raised mires you’ll find a diverse range of wildlife.
The number of different species depends upon the time of year you visit, but in summer the Solway Firth really comes alive and visitors will see everything from buzzing dragonflies in the fields to bottle-nose dolphins looking for their next meal out at sea.
Tourists visiting the Solway Firth won’t be disappointed with the quality of beaches on offer either, with the ever-popular Rockcliffe, Southerness and Sandyhills beaches all within close distance of each other, and many other hidden bays are just waiting to be discovered around the next corner.
But it’s not just people who flock to this area of Scotland.
The marine environment with its plentiful food supplies has led to the Solway Firth becoming a haven for wildlife, and bird watchers will enjoy seeing thousands of barnacle and pink-footed geese making the area their home from autumn through to spring.
At other times you can see finches, yellow-hammer and reed buntings, lapwings and skylarks, so it’s understandable why so many areas in the region have been categorised as nature reserves.
Moving slightly inland you’ll find a variety of lochs and ruined castles (Caerlaverock Castle with its unique triangular shape is a highlight), while tourist attractions like Gretna Green Blacksmiths Shop and the market town of Dumfries are within half an hour’s drive.
If you want to investigate the land further south you’ll find the Hadrians Wall World Heritage Site which has several fascinating Roman ruins, with the Senhouse Roman Museum at Maryport being a firm favourite with tourists.
As a place where you can really immerse yourself in nature I think the Solway Firth is massively underrated, so if you’re looking for somewhere to spend a few weekends I’d suggest you put this area right at the top of your list.
Find other places to visit in the area with my Scottish Tourist Attractions Map.
Explore this area with a detailed paper map from Ordnance Survey:
Solway Firth – 314 Explorer.
Dumfries & Dalbeattie – 313 Explorer.
Kirkcudbright & Castle Douglas – 312 Explorer.
OS Explorer Maps: Best for walking, mountain biking, and finding footpaths. 1:25,000 scale (4cm = 1km in real world). Buy OS Explorer maps direct from Ordnance Survey.
OS Landranger Maps: Best for road cycling, touring by car, and finding attractions. 1:50 000 scale (2 cm = 1 km in real world). Buy OS Landranger maps direct from Ordnance Survey.
Things to do nearby
Caerlaverock Castle. Castle Road End, Dumfries DG1 4RU. A medieval castle with an unusual triangular shape. It is one of the few remaining castles in Scotland that still has a moat surrounding it.
The castle has a small museum, a play park and a picnic area at the entrance and there is a path that leads behind it to the Solway Firth wetlands.
Caerlaverock Wetland Centre. Eastpark Farm, Caerlaverock DG1 4RS. This nature reserve is within walking distance of Caerlaverock Castle. It is famed for its diverse wildlife habitats that are a haven for barnacle geese, ospreys, swans and other waterfowl.
Southerness Point. Southerness, Dumfries DG2 8AZ. A very popular stretch of coastline on the Solway Firth. The section at Southerness is largely bedrock that is an ideal place to explore rock pools left behind by the retreating tide.
The beach at Southerness has a historic lighthouse, although it is not open to the public. Paths lead in either direction for superb coastal walks.
Broughton House and Garden. 12 High St, Kirkcudbright DG6 4JX. An Edwardian country manor set amongst manicured Japanese-inspired gardens.
The house is open to the public for self-guided tours that allow visitors to see a number of exhibitions including a rare collection of books by Robert Burns.
Bainloch Deer Park. Laggan Woodlands, Sandyhills, Dalbeattie DG5 4NZ. A deer park overlooking the Solway Firth that offers visitors guided tours by experienced guides to see the animals up close.
Frequently asked questions
Can you walk across the Solway Firth?
It is not possible to walk across the Solway Firth when the tide is in. When the tide is out it is theoretically possible, but it would be dangerous to walk across as there are areas of sinking sand.
Why is the Solway Firth called that?
‘Solway’ is derived from a Scandinavian word that refers to a ford across mud flats. ‘Firth’ is a Scots word that denotes coastal water.
Is the Solway Firth in Scotland or England?
The Solway Firth is a border between Scotland and England. The north side is Scottish, while the south side is English. The Solway Firth extends inland for 38 miles.
What river flows into the Solway Firth?
The Solway Firth is an estuary where the River Eden and the River Esk meet.