Last updated on May 29th, 2023.
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
The castles of Scotland have a long and fascinating history. From the days of the Picts to the times of William Wallace and Robert the Bruce, these imposing structures have witnessed some of the most momentous events in Scotland’s history and have been integral in making Scotland the country it is today.
There are almost 1,500 surviving Scottish castles ranging from hilltop watchtowers to enormous royal palaces, and all can be roughly divided into two types: curtain-walled forts from the Middle Ages and tower houses from the 14th to 17th centuries – the majority of which are open to the public as modern-day tourist attractions.
For those looking for a unique experience, a journey to the North of Scotland to visit the region’s stunning castles is an adventure that’s guaranteed to create memories that will last a lifetime.
Discover the pick of the top castles in North Scotland as well as a few in the Hebrides with this complete travel guide.
The best castles in North Scotland
What do you think of when you picture Scotland? Majestic mountains? Scenic lochs? Windswept islands?
They’re probably the first things that spring to mind for the majority of people, but you might be surprised to know the attraction with the biggest search volume on Google is actually Scotland’s castles.
That’s to be expected when you consider this country has one of the greatest collections of fortified buildings in the world, with over two thousand built between the 12th and 18th centuries (the most prolific castle-building period).
Although these castles took on many different forms they were all built with the same theme of keeping their inhabitants safe, which means they were – and still are – among the biggest man-made structures in the country.
There’s quite a variety of castles to see during a visit to Scotland, from the iron-age broch (a hollow-walled cylindrical structure) to the medieval dun (a type of hillfort), but most are either curtain-walled forts or thick-walled tower houses.
These atmosphere-drenched buildings are waiting to transport you in time across a thousand years of Scotland’s history to the days of warring clans and battles against England, with brief detours into royal scandals and Jacobite uprisings.
Exploring Scotland’s castles is really a journey into the story of Scotland itself, and perhaps it’s the only way to truly understand what a fascinating history this country has.
Note that many of the following castles are managed by The National Trust for Scotland which offers free entry when you purchase a membership.
Scottish castles map
This Google map shows the location of all the castles, fortified manor houses and tower houses that are worth including in a sightseeing tour of Scotland, so you might find it handy to plan your next road trip around the country.
Click on the markers to view more information about each castle.
Scottish castles list
- Address: Blair Atholl, Pitlochry, PH18 5TL
- Contact details: Tel 01796 481207
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Blair Castle
You’ll find Blair Castle nestled in rolling countryside near the village of Blair Atholl in Perthshire, within easy access of the A9 and B8079.
The castle has an enormous amount of history behind it and has served an incredible nineteen generations of the Atholl family for over 750 years.
In my opinion, Blair Castle is up there with Dunrobin when it comes to fairy-tale looks and it’s not far from what you might imagine a real-life Disney castle would look like with its turrets, battlements, and breathtaking scenery in every direction.
During a self-guided tour, visitors are free to walk around the castle at their leisure which can be a wee bit overwhelming as the castle is so big, but thankfully there are lots of guides on hand to answer questions and explain the history of the exhibits.
There are over 30 rooms that are accessible to tourists and they’re all chock-full of sculptures, paintings, and memorabilia which makes a nice change from some of the castles on this list that are nothing more than ruins.
But as nice as the interior is, perhaps the highlight of a visit to Blair Castle is exploring the surrounding gardens.
The gardens are absolutely enormous and include a walled garden, a conifer woodland, a secluded grove, and a sculpture trail, making them a perfect place for a summer visit.
- Address: Brodick, North Ayrshire, KA27 8HY
- Contact details: Tel 01770 302202
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Brodick Castle
The Isle of Arran is frequently called ‘Scotland in miniature’ as it has every type of attraction the country is famous for.
Beautiful coastlines, mountain ranges, lochs, forests and castles are all located within a short drive of each other, and in fact, two of Arran’s top tourist destinations – Goatfell mountain and Brodick Castle – are close enough that you can walk between them in a couple of hours.
Brodick Castle is (unsurprisingly) located close to the village of Brodick on Arran’s eastern side, where it overlooks Brodick Bay to the south and Goatfell to the north.
Getting there is simple for drivers as the castle is situated close to the A841, and footpaths along the coastline mean it’s possible to walk to it from the ferry terminal within an hour.
This is really two attractions in one. One half is the dramatic castle which is managed by the National Trust for Scotland which allows visitors to explore part of it on a self-guided tour.
The other half is the extensive gardens that are home to one of the greatest exotic plant collections in the country.
Thanks to Arran’s warmer-than-average microclimate, the gardens at Brodick Castle are able to sustain plants that would otherwise need special care in greenhouses and there are many thriving specimens that are unable to grow outdoors anywhere else in Scotland.
In addition to the mini-jungle of the garden there’s a sculpture trail, a walled garden, a large summerhouse, a woodland, a children’s play park and a café which all offer visitors enough activities to keep them occupied for an entire afternoon.
The castle, meanwhile, is the usual affair of a pre-set route through restored bedrooms, dining rooms, kitchen, and servants’ quarters, and there’s an obligatory gift shop at the exit.
There aren’t many rooms to view but it’s an interesting tour that’s well worth the price of admission.
Visitors have a choice of tickets for either the gardens on their own or combined entry to the castle and the gardens, or they can purchase a National Trust for Scotland membership which allows unlimited free entry for 12 months.
Purchase your National Trust for Scotland membership direct from the NTS website.
- Address: Isle of Mull, Scotland, PA64 6AP
- Contact details: Tel 01680 812309
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Duart Castle
If you’re considering a holiday on one of Scotland’s west coast islands but can’t decide which one to visit, do yourself a favour and head to the Isle of Mull.
The island is quieter than Skye, is almost as pretty, and has what many people consider one of the finest castles in Scotland – Duart Castle.
This statuesque fortification sits on a promontory overlooking the Sound of Mull. It’s easy to understand why Clan Maclean chose it as their seat of power for more than 700 years because it’s in such a commanding position it would have been near-impossible for attackers to sneak up on it unnoticed.
The castle is still privately owned by the MacLeans, but what you see today is markedly different from when it was originally built in the 13th century.
The castle was demolished by the Duke of Argyll in 1691 and then completely rebuilt in 1911, so it’s not quite as old as it first appears.
Duart Castle has a definite family feel to it and much of the memorabilia inside has been handed down over generations – something that’s most obvious in the Great Hall which features an impressive collection of family portraits and silverware.
A self-guided tour inside the castle will take half to one hour, after which you can explore the exterior which features wee shingle beaches and a nature trail through a woodland.
There’s also a very good café in a separate building that offers quality food at a reasonable price, and there’s a shop that sells clan-themed gifts.
Finally, when you visit make sure you head up to the rooftop terrace as the views northwards towards Tobermory are nothing short of stunning.
- Address: Dunbeg, By Oban, Argyll, PA37 1PZ
- Contact details: Tel 01631 562 465
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Dunstaffnage Castle
Dunstaffnage Castle isn’t the prettiest in this list but it’s certainly one of the most imposing, with a hulking mass of stone walls built on top of a rock outcrop that overlooks Ardmucknish Bay near Oban.
It was built as a defence against invading Norwegian armies who were plundering the Hebrides in the 1200s, and it saw military use right up until the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, after which it was abandoned.
However, unlike many abandoned castles, Dunstaffnage is almost entirely intact and the central tower house is fully roofed and has restored floors and windows.
It’s quite bare inside so it’s difficult to imagine how it would have looked when it was inhabited, but it’s one of the few castles of its age where visitors can actually climb up the main staircase and walk around each room.
The original curtain walls protect a large courtyard that has information panels explaining what the various parts of the castle were used for, and there’s a staircase leading up onto a walkway on top of the main wall that offers superb views across the bay to the islands of Lismore and Mull.
The woodlands surrounding Dunstaffnage Castle are home to a number of protected pipistrelle bats so you might be lucky enough to see them if you visit when the evening draws in.
If not, I suggest taking a wander into the woods as there’s a secret 13th-century chapel hidden away in there that’s incredibly atmospheric (and a wee bit creepy).
The entrance kiosk for the castle is set within the grounds in a separate building that houses an exhibition about the castle’s use throughout the ages as well as one of its most famous inhabitants – Flora MacDonald – who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie escape to the Isle of Skye after his defeat at the Battle of Culloden.
Facilities at Dunstaffnage Castle include a small shop and toilets, and although there is a car park, it’s set a few hundred yards away which may not be suitable for all visitors.
- Address: Stonehaven, AB39 2TL
- Contact details: Tel 01569 766320
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Dunnottar Castle
Of all the castles in Scotland, this one on the Aberdeenshire coast is the most picturesque. Not because of the castle itself, but because of its location on a promontory overlooking the North Sea which is almost entirely cut off from the mainland except for a thin strip of land.
The castle was built in the 15th century for the Earl of Marischal, and as a defensive position I’ve yet to see anywhere else that comes close, as access is only possible by either scaling near-vertical cliffs or ascending a narrow staircase that would have been easily defended by archers.
It’s quite a sizeable castle compared to most of the fortifications in Scotland as it’s spread out over a large area and comprises a number of separate buildings, thanks to the fact that its location meant there was no need to contain everything within an external wall.
Almost every part of Dunnottar Castle is open to the public and visitors can explore the old residential buildings, the central courtyard with its huge well, the chapel, the munitions buildings, the underground vaults, and the creepy prison.
Unlike most historic buildings of this size, Dunnottar castle is privately owned and is not managed by Historic Environment Scotland so HES membership does not allow free admission.
That also means the entrance price is a wee bit cheaper than you’ll find at most HES sites of this size but there are no information boards, shops, or cafés.
It shouldn’t take much more than 1-2 hours to explore Dunnottar Castle but a visit can be rounded off nicely by following the coastal footpath that heads towards Stonehaven by way of a surprisingly large war memorial.
Along the way, keep your eyes open for dolphins and seals in Castle Haven and Strathlethan Bays, and the Dunnicaer sea stacks which are a favourite nesting site for thousands of seabirds.
If you don’t have a pair of birdwatching binoculars yet take a look at these recommended budget binoculars.
- Address: Dunrobin, Golspie, Sutherland, KW10 6SF
- Contact details: Tel 01408 633177
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Dunrobin Castle
Dunrobin Castle in the northeast Highlands has to be one of – if not the – prettiest buildings in Scotland.
In fact, to look at it you wouldn’t immediately think it’s actually in Scotland because it was built to mimic a French château with lots of conical turrets and detailed stonework.
Those modern features are slightly deceptive, however, because beneath the beautiful veneer lies a formidable 13th-century square keep that was built by the Earl of Sutherland.
You can still see evidence of the old keep as you tour the castle but it’s almost entirely hidden behind decorative wood carvings and plaster motifs.
If you’re at all interested in the oldest parts of Dunrobin I suggest speaking to the castle guides who are very knowledgeable, or you can pick up a guidebook from the entrance kiosk that will tell you everything you might want to know.
The French château theme continues outside with manicured gardens designed to mimic the ones at the Palace of Versailles which includes an enormous summerhouse that contains one of the finest private museums in Britain.
Finally, after you’ve walked around the castle and the gardens you might like to pop into the on-site café and gift shop or take a walk down to the beach front which is close to Loch Fleet National Nature Reserve.
Eilean Donan Castle
- Address: Dornie, Kyle of Lochalsh, IV40 8DX
- Contact details: Tel 01599 555202
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Eilean Donan Castle
Like Edinburgh Castle, many people will have seen Eilean Donan Castle whether they’ve visited Scotland or not, purely because there are so many photos of it on the internet.
It’s no surprise the iconic image of this castle is used over and over again because it’s located in one of the most spectacular settings in the Highlands, within the Kintail National Scenic Area and next to the picturesque waters of lochs Duich, Long, and Alsh.
There has been a fortress on Eilean Donan island since the 13th century, but the building we see today is a relatively new structure built using stones from a castle that was demolished during the Jacobite uprising of 1745.
In 1932, a descendant of the MacRae clan rebuilt the fortress using the plans of the earlier castle along with a few much-needed alterations, most notably adding a bridge to improve access and a central keep that served as the clan family home.
The castle is now a privately run venue that offers overnight accommodation with facilities to host weddings and events, but it’s also a tourist attraction that’s open for visitors to explore.
Each room in the castle is filled to the brim with clan MacRae memorabilia, along with many objects that have been collected to showcase the history of Scotland including artworks and weapons that date from the 1700s.
There’s also a very good visitor centre that houses a café (top tip, try the scones), a gift shop, and an information centre that’s a great resource for finding more places to visit in the area.
- Address: Inveraray, Argyll, PA32 8XE
- Contact details: Tel 01499 302203
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Inveraray Castle
The village of Inveraray, located on the shore of Loch Fyne (the longest sea loch in Scotland), is home to Inveraray Castle, the 18th-century home of the Duke of Argyll.
The castle is one of the most popular tourist sites in the region, drawing thousands of visitors to its beautiful architecture, sumptuous rooms, and impeccably maintained gardens.
Spending an afternoon at the castle is a must-do for all visitors to Argyll as it’s one of the finest examples of an inhabited castle in Scotland (the Duke and his family still live in one of the wings), and some of the rooms easily rival those in Edinburgh’s magnificent Holyrood Palace.
Take the Armoury Hall as an example. This grand room houses one of the largest private weaponry collections in the country and also has the highest ceiling of any building in Scotland at an incredible 21 metres (69 feet) at its highest point.
Having visited Inveraray Castle recently, I have to make a point to say the gardens are even more interesting than the castle is, due to the fact they’re absolutely enormous and cover 16 acres of woodland, lawns, and flower beds.
As far as facilities go, Inveraray Castle is up there with the best of them with an excellent café and gift shop, a large car park, toilets, and partial disabled access.
- Address: Lochawe, Dalmally, PA33 1AF
- Contact details: NA
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Kilchurn Castle
Kilchurn Castle in Argyll is located at the head of Loch Awe, 2 miles north of St. Conan’s Kirk and 2 miles west of the village of Dalmally.
Access is via a car park just off the A85 which joins a footpath leading through moorland onto a promontory that spurs into Loch Awe, with the castle perched on a raised mound at the far end.
It was built in the mid-1400s by the 1st Lord of Glenorchy and was later converted into an army barracks, but due to a lack of use it was abandoned in the 1700s which is why it’s in such a ruinous condition today.
That being said, it’s a very, very scenic place with flat plains of grassland in all directions, the glassy Loch Awe to the front, and mountain ranges set against the horizon as far as the eye can see.
With the crumbling ruins of the castle in the foreground it has to be one of the nicest scenes in Scotland and goes some way to explaining why Kilchurn Castle is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the region.
Although this is yet another site managed by Historic Environment Scotland they have yet to set up any kind of entrance gate so admittance is completely free, though the downside is that because the castle is unmanned the front door is often locked meaning it’s hit-or-miss whether you’ll be able to venture inside.
If you do, you’ll find a small courtyard and dilapidated walls that hint at how grand the castle would have been in its heyday, along with a single lookout tower that you can climb to get a nice view of Loch Awe.
Externally you’ll find a makeshift path leading down to the shoreline behind the castle where visitors can view it from an alternative angle (as long as they’re not getting eaten alive by midges…), and another rough track that leads around the far side of the castle in a short loop.
However, the best viewpoint is located on the southern side of the loch just off the A819 where there’s a lay-by and a footpath leading down to the water’s edge.
If you have a camera this is the best location to get a memorable shot as the panoramic view with the mountains in the background is nothing short of breathtaking.
- Address: Lochranza, Isle of Arran, KA27 8HL
- Contact details: NA
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Lochranza
The Isle of Arran may be known as one of Scotland’s premier outdoor destinations thanks to its mountains, coastline, and forests, but there are a number of historic attractions that are worth visiting as well, including the lovely village of Lochranza and its small castle.
Lochranza is located on the northernmost tip of the island where it sits in the shadow of the Torr Meadhonach hills.
Access to the rest of Arran is easy thanks to the A841 ring road, and due to the fact the village has a ferry service to the mainland and a whisky distillery, it’s worth visiting even without the castle.
The 13th-century castle sits on a strip of land that juts into the sea loch, with a single-track road running past it.
It’s a small castle and to be honest there’s nothing exceptional about it, but I’m including it in this list as the location is stunning and it’s a great stopping-off point for anyone cycling or driving around the Arran Coastal Way.
The castle (it’s actually more of a tower house than a castle) was built in the 1200s by the Lord of Knapdale and consists of a single 2-storey tower and a newer residential building that was added in the 1500s.
Sadly, the castle is almost entirely in ruin and there’s not much to see inside, but it’s hoped to be renovated by Historic Environment Scotland in the near future.
Note that while the castle is free to visit, it’s closed to the public from October to March so it really isn’t worth making a visit to Lochranza to see it in the colder months.
That being said, if you’re in the area to either use the Lochranza ferry or tour the Lochranza whisky distillery, taking a few minutes to walk to the castle is a bit of a no-brainer, especially in the evening.
I make this point as there are large herds of wild deer living in the hills around the village that often come down to the castle at dusk, and visitors in autumn frequently get to enjoy the sight of rutting stags battling against each other.
Castle Sinclair Girnigoe
- Address: Wick, KW1 4QT
- Contact details: NA
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Castle Sinclair Girnigoe
This is without a doubt the most dilapidated castle on this list, but it’s also one of the most atmospheric. There are actually two castles at the site – Castle Girnigoe and Castle Sinclair – that were built separately in the 1400s and the 1600s respectively by the Earls of Caithness.
The oldest building (Castle Girnigoe) is entirely ruined and has been eroded away to the point where just a few ramshackle walls are left standing.
The later castle is much more intact, but ironically it’s the older castle that visitors are able to explore as Castle Sinclair has been closed for several years for safety reasons.
Access to the castle is via a coastal path from a car park at the historic Noss Head lighthouse, with the path crossing fairly rough grassland before it reaches the castle and continuing further around the headland.
This stretch of coastline is well known for its steep cliffs and Castle Sinclair Girnigoe perches precariously at the very edge, almost looking like it’s about to crash into the sea below.
Those cliffs would have made a seaward attack virtually impossible back in the days when the castle was built and a natural dry moat around the clifftop would have made it easy to defend from the landward side, so it’s understandable that a new castle was built so close to the ruins of the old one.
The Sinclair Girnigoe Trust have added information panels and a wooden bridge over the moat, but other than that there are absolutely no facilities at the site so if you need food and toilets your best bet is to drive a couple of miles south to the town of Wick.
Due to its size, it won’t take long to visit this castle (maybe one hour) but it’s possible to spend a full afternoon looking at other clifftop castles in the area thanks to Old Keiss Castle and Bucholie Castle which are both easily accessed by driving north along the A99.
There is also a stunning golden beach bordering Sinclairs Bay, which is situated a couple of miles west of Castle Sinclair Girnigoe.
- Address: Elgin, Moray, IV30 5QG
- Contact details: Tel 01499 302203
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Spynie Palace
Although the name might lead you to believe this is a royal residence, it’s actually a fortified tower house that was used as the home of the bishops of Moray for over 500 years.
The reason Spynie Palace was built in this remote area is that it’s close to Elgin – Moray’s administrative centre and also a Royal Burgh – where the awe-inspiring Elgin Cathedral can be found in the town centre.
You can find out more about the cathedral in my Complete Guide to Elgin Cathedral.
The cathedral was one of the most important religious sites in Scotland back in the 13th century and the bishops who served there had a great deal of wealth and power, which is why the formidable Spynie Palace was built nearby.
The ‘palace’ is dominated by David’s Tower – the largest tower house by volume in Scotland – which is a must-visit for the stunning views of the Moray countryside from the viewing platform at the top.
Although it won’t take visitors long to explore Spynie Palace (30-45 minutes) there’s a picnic area overlooking the picturesque countryside and a large lawn area where children can run about.
That being said, if you find yourself struggling to keep the kids entertained you can upgrade your ticket to include entry to Elgin Cathedral which offers a whole afternoon’s worth of nooks and crannies to explore.
- Address: Drumnadrochit, Inverness, IV63 6XJ
- Contact details: Tel 01456 450 551
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Urquhart Castle
Just like Eilean Donan, I bet you’ve already seen Urquhart Castle even if you’ve never actually been there.
That’s not because it’s particularly big, but because it’s situated in a spectacular setting on the shores of every tourist’s must-visit loch – Loch Ness.
To be honest with you, there are plenty of other lochs in Scotland that are more scenic – lochs Morlich, Lomond, Shiel, and Awe spring immediately to mind – but because Ness has the legend of the monster associated with it, it seems to attract the most visitors.
Urquhart Castle is easy to reach from either Inverness to the north or Fort Augustus to the south, and it’s worth visiting just to experience the views looking across the great body of water (it’s so big, every lake in England and Wales could fit inside it!).
The story of the castle begins in the late 700s when it was used by the Picts (descendants of Scotland’s Iron Age tribes) who are believed to have established a fort on the site, but that was torn down and replaced with the castle we see today sometime in the 13th-century.
Urquhart Castle was integral to the defence of the Highlands, but it was partially demolished in the 17th century and was abandoned and left to fall into ruin until it was handed over to state care in 1911.
While it was a popular tourist site for many years it only transitioned into one of the country’s top attractions when Historic Environment Scotland built a multi-million-pound visitor centre near the entrance.
The centre features exhibitions, a cinema, a restaurant, and a shop, and today Urquhart Castle is the third most-visited historic site in Scotland after the castles at Edinburgh and Stirling.
- Address: Tongue, Lairg, IV27 4XE
- Contact details: NA
- Out About Scotland complete guide: Castle Varrich
It’s debatable whether this is actually classed as a castle at all as it’s really just a lookout tower, but what it lacks in size it more than makes up for with the gorgeous views on offer from the top of the structure.
Castle Varrich is situated on a hill overlooking the Kyle of Tongue on the far northern tip of Scotland. This vast estuary is wide and flat so the hill on which the castle sits allows uninterrupted views for miles in all directions, which made it one of the most strategically important sites in Sutherland when it was built.
It’s known that a fortification of some kind has existed on top of the hill where Castle Varrich is located for well over a thousand years – even before the days of the Vikings – but the exact age of the first fort is unknown.
Historians do know, however, that the tower that’s visible today was built by Clan Mackay in the 14th century and originally had two floors plus a stable and an attic, though the roof has long since crumbled away.
Castle Varrich can only be accessed on foot as the nearest road is located one mile to the east in the village of Tongue, but a well-maintained footpath connects the village to the castle on a route that will take the majority of people 30-45 minutes to walk.
Once at the castle, visitors can climb up a recently-installed staircase that leads out onto a viewing platform to enjoy the spectacular views of the Kyle of Tongue, before returning to Tongue on the same path.
Special offer! Click this affiliate link to purchase a Historic Environment Scotland Explorer Pass from Viator. Your 5-day or 14-day pass allows free entry to more than 77 castles, cathedrals, distilleries and more throughout Scotland.
I hope this list of Scotland’s castles has given you a few ideas for places to visit, or at least inspired you to explore parts of the country that you hadn’t previously considered travelling to.
Frequently asked questions
What are Scottish castles called?
Depending on the age there are several styles of castle in Scotland. The earliest fortifications include hill forts, brochs and duns.
From the 11th century, motte and bailey castles appeared followed by stone castles in the 1200s. In the 14th century, curtain-walled castled were preferred, followed by tower houses which were later updated in the Scottish Baronial style.
How many castles are there in Scotland?
There have been more than 2,000 castles in Scotland throughout its history but many of them do not exist today. Historic Environment Scotland currently lists around 500 buildings that can be classed as fortified dwellings.
Where are the most castles in Scotland?
There are castles across Scotland but one area with the highest number is Aberdeenshire. This is partly due to its location which would have been open to attack from Scandinavia.
What are the best castles in Scotland?
Recommended castles for tourists include; Edinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle, Dunrobin Castle, Blair Castle, Inveraray Castle, Fyvie Castle and Kilchurn Castle.
What is the most visited castle in Scotland?
The most visited castle in Scotland is Edinburgh Castle which attracts more than 2 million visitors each year. Located in the capital city of Edinburgh, it is a historic fortress that has played a significant role in the country’s history.
Edinburgh Castle is perched on top of an extinct volcano – Castle Rock – and offers stunning views of the city. It’s home to the Scottish Crown Jewels, the Stone of Destiny, and the Royal Palace, which were all used in the coronation of Scottish monarchs. The castle is also home to the Scottish National War Memorial and the National War Museum of Scotland.